An important component of OCOM’s mission is to engage in innovative research within a community of service and healing. To this end, the college’s faculty and staff regularly contribute to the scientific evidence-base for acupuncture and Chinese medicine by publishing peer-reviewed journal articles. These articles span a broad range of topics relevant to the practice, education, and advancement of acupuncture and Chinese medicine.

A select list of hyperlinked citations organized by topic area is provided below:


Ritenbaugh C, Hammerschlag R, Dworkin SF, Aickin MG, Mist SD, Elder CR, Harris RE. Comparative effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine and psychosocial care in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders-associated chronic facial pain. J Pain. 2012 Nov 13(11):1075-89.

Elder C, Ritenbaugh C, Aickin M, Hammerschlag R, Dworkin S, Mist S, Harris RE. Reductions in pain medication use associated with traditional Chinese medicine for chronic pain. Perm J. 2012 Summer 16(3):18-23.

Vickers AJ, Cronin AM, Maschino AC, Lewith G, MacPherson H, Foster NE, Sherman KJ, Witt CM, Linde K; Acupuncture Trialists' Collaboration. Acupuncture for chronic pain: individual patient data meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2012 Oct 22 172(19):1444-53.

Birch S, Hammerschlag R, Berman BM. Acupuncture in the treatment of pain.  J Altern Complement Med. 1996; 2:101-124.


Women’s Health

Hullender Rubin LE, Opsahl MS, Wiemer KE, Mist SD, Caughey AB. Impact of whole systems traditional Chinese medicine on in vitro fertilization outcomes. Reprod Biomed Online. 2015 Jun;30(6):602-12.

Hullender Rubin LE, Opsahl MS, Taylor-Swanson L, Ackerman DL. Acupuncture and in vitro fertilization: a retrospective chart review. J Altern Complement Med. 2013 Jul 19(7):637-43.

Hullender Rubin L, Cantor D, Marx BL. Recurrent Pregnancy Loss and Traditional Chinese Medicine. Med Acupunct. 2013 Jun;25(3):232-237.

Hullender Rubin L, Marx BL. Diminished Ovarian Reserve, Clomid, and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Case Study. Med Acupunct. 2012 Dec;24(4):273-280.

Gardiner P, Stargrove MB, Dog TL. Concomitant use of prescription medications and dietary supplements in menopausal women: an approach to provider preparedness. Maturitas. 2011 Mar;68(3):251-5.

Hullender Rubin L. Adjunctive role of Chinese herbs and acupuncture in an in vitro fertilization cycle – a case study. The American Acupuncturist. 2010;52:16-19

Hullender Rubin L. Vaginismus successfully treated with Chinese medicine − a case study. The American Acupuncturist. 2009;49:24-27.



Hollifield, M., Sinclair-Lian, N., Warner, T., Hammerschlag, R. Acupuncture for posttraumatic stress disorder: A randomized controlled pilot trial. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 2007;195(6):504-13.

Sinclair-Lian, N., Hollifield, M., Menache, M., Warner, T., Viscaya, J., Hammerschlag, R. Developing a traditional Chinese medicine diagnostic structure for post-traumatic stress disorder. J Altern Complement Med. 2006;12:45-57.


Acupuncture Databases

Marx BL, Milley R, Cantor DG, Ackerman DL, Hammerschlag R. AcuTrials®: an online database of randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews of acupuncture. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013 Jul 19;13:181.


AOM Research Education

Marx BL, Rubin LH, Milley R, Hammerschlag R, Ackerman DL. A prospective patient-centered data collection program at an acupuncture and oriental medicine teaching clinic. J Altern Complement Med. 2013 May; 19(5): 410-5.

Wayne PM, Hammerschlag R, Savetsky-German J, Chapman TF. Attitudes and interests toward research among students at two colleges of acupuncture and Oriental medicine. Explore (NY). 2010 Jan-Feb; 6(1): 22-8.

Lasater K, Salanti S, Fleishman S, Coletto J, Jin H, Lore R, Hammerschlag R. Learning activities to enhance research literacy in a CAM college curriculum. Altern Ther Health Med. 2009 Jul-Aug; 15(4): 46-54.

Wu J, Lu Z, Hayes M, Donovan D, Lore R. Integration of acupuncture into family medicine teaching clinics. J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Sep; 15(9): 1015-9.

Hammerschlag, R., Lasater, K., Salanti, S., Fleishman, S. Research Scholars Program:  A faculty development initiative at the Oregon College of Oriental Medicine. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2008; 14: 437-443.

Nedrow AR, Istvan J, Haas M, Barrett R, Salveson C, Moore G, Hammerschlag RKeenan E. Implications for education in complementary and alternative medicine: A survey of entry attitudes in students at five health professional schools. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2007; 13(3): 381-386.

Benjamin PJ, Phillips R, Warren D, Salveson C, Hammerschlag R, Snider P, et al. Response to a proposal for an integrative medicine curriculum. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2007; 13(9): 1021-1033.


AOM Research Methodology

Hammerschlag R, Jain S, Baldwin AL, Gronowicz G, Lutgendorf SK, Oschman JL, Yount GL. Biofield research: a roundtable discussion of scientific and methodological issues.  J Altern Complement Med. 2012 Dec; 18(12): 1081-6.

Witt CM, Manheimer E, Hammerschlag R, Lüdtke R, Lao L, Tunis SR, Berman BM. How well do randomized trials inform decision making: systematic review using comparative effectiveness research measures on acupuncture for back pain. PLoS One. 2012; 7(2): e32399.

Witt CM, Aickin M, Baca T, Cherkin D, Haan MN, Hammerschlag R, Hao JJ, Kaplan GA, Lao L, McKay T, Pierce B, Riley D, Ritenbaugh C, Thorpe K, Tunis S, Weissberg J, Berman BM; Effectiveness Guidance Documents Collaborators. Effectiveness Guidance Document (EGD) for acupuncture research - a consensus document for conducting trials. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012 Sep; 12:148.

Langevin HM, Wayne PM, Macpherson H, Schnyer R, Milley RM, Napadow V, Lao L, Park J, Harris RE, Cohen M, Sherman KJ, Haramati A, Hammerschlag R. Paradoxes in acupuncture research: strategies for moving forward. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011. 

Langevin HM, Hammerschlag R, Lao L, Napadow V, Schnyer RN, Sherman KJ. Controversies in acupuncture research: Selection of controls and outcome measures in acupuncture clinical trials. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2006; 12(10): 943-953.

Verhoef MJ, Lewith G, Ritenbaugh C, Boon H, Fleishman S, Leis A. Complementary and alternative medicine whole systems research: Beyond identification of inadequacies of the RCT. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2005; 13(3): 206-12.

Ritenbaugh C, Verhoef M, Fleishman S, Boon H, Leis A. Whole systems research: A discipline for studying complementary and alternative medicine. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 2003; 9(4): 32-6.

Birch S, Hammerschlag R, Trinh KV, Zaslawski C. The non-specific effects of acupuncture treatment: When and how to control for them. Clinical Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine. 2002; 3: 20-25.

White AR, Trinh K, Hammerschlag R. Performing systematic reviews of clinical trials of acupuncture: Problems and solutions. Clinical Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine. 2002; 3: 26-31.

Lao L, Ezzo J, Hammerschlag R, Berman B. Assessing clinical efficacy of acupuncture: Considerations for designing future acupuncture trials. In: Stux & Hammerschlag, eds. Clinical Acupuncture: Scientific Basis. Berlin: Springer; 2001: 187-209.

Hammerschlag R. Methodological and ethical issues in clinical trials of acupuncture. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 1998; 4: 159-171.

Hammerschlag R, Morris MM. Clinical trials comparing acupuncture to biomedical standard care: A criteria-based evaluation of research design and reporting. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 1997; 5: 133-140.

Birch S, Hammerschlag R. Acupuncture Efficacy: A compendium of controlled clinical trials. In: Faass N, ed. Integrating Complementary Medicine Into Health Systems. Tarrytown, NY: National Academy of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine; 1996: 519-542.


Acupuncture Evidence-Base

MacPherson H, Hammerschlag R. Acupuncture and the emerging evidence base: contrived controversy and rational debate. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2012;5(4):141-7

MacPherson H, Hammerschlag R, Lewith G, Schnyer R, ed.  Acupuncture research: Strategies for establishing an evidence base. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier; 2007.

Linde K, Hammerschlag R, Lao L. Evidence overviews: The role of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. In: MacPherson, Hammerschlag, Lewith, &  Schnyer, eds., Acupuncture research: Strategies for establishing an evidence base. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier; 2007: 199-217.

Hammerschlag R. Acupuncture: On what should its evidence base be based? Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 2003; 9: 34-35.


Acupuncture Mechanism

Ahn, A. C., Colbert, A. P., Anderson, B. J., Martinsen, O. G., Hammerschlag, R., Cina, S., et al. Electrical properties of acupuncture points and meridians: A systematic review. Bioelectromagnetics. 2008;29(4): 245-56. 

Hammerschlag, R., Langevin, H., Lao, L., & Lewith, G. Physiological dynamics of acupuncture: Correlations and mechanisms. In: H. MacPherson, R. Hammerschlag, G. Lewith, & R. Schnyer (Eds.), Acupuncture research: Strategies for establishing an evidence base . Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier; 2007: 181-197.

Pearson S., Colbert  A. P., McNames  J., Baumgartner M., Hammerschlag R. Electrical skin impedance at acupuncture points. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2007;13(4): 409-18.

Napadow V, Webb JM, Pearson N, Hammerschlag R. Neurobiological correlates of acupuncture: November 17-18, 2005. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2006; 12(9): 931-935.

Ahn AC, Wu J, Badger GJ, Hammerschlag R, Langevin HM. Electrical impedance along connective tissue planes associated with acupuncture meridians. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2005; 5: 10.

Colbert AP, Hammerschlag R, Aickin M, McNames J. Reliability of the prognosis electrodermal device for measurements of electrical skin resistance at acupuncture points. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2004; 10: 610-616.

Tsunami D, Colbert A, Lu Z, Pearson S, McNames J, Hammerschlag R. Physiologic responses to acupuncture point stimulation: A pilot study to evaluate methods and instrumentation. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol. Soc. 2004; 5: 3611-3614.

Hammerschlag R. Physiology of acupuncture. In: Cassidy CM ed. Contemporary Practice of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine . New York: Churchill-Livingstone; 2002: 203-222.

Hammerschlag R, Lao L. Future directions for research on the physiology of acupuncture. In: Stux & Hammerschlag, eds. Clinical Acupuncture: Scientific Basis. Berlin: Springer; 2001: 211-219.


AOM Research Quality

Hammerschlag R, Milley R, Colbert A, Weih J, Yohalem-Ilsley B, Mist S, Aickin M. Randomized Controlled Trials of Acupuncture (1997-2007): An Assessment of Reporting Quality with a CONSORT- and STRICTA-Based Instrument. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011.

Hammerschlag R, Milley R, Colbert AP, Weih J, Yohalem-Ilsley B, Aickin M. Acupuncture RCTs: Quality of reporting assessed with a CONSORT and STRICTA-based instrument. Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies. 2005;  10: 24-25.

Hammerschlag R, Milley R, Colbert AP, Weih J, Yohalem-Ilsley B, Aickin M. Randomized controlled trials of acupuncture, 1997-2002: Pilot test of a CONSORT and STRICTA based quality of reporting instrument. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2004; 10: 203-204.


General AOM Research

Sloan S, Reeves J, Sledd M, Stein J. The Changing Demographics of Acupuncturists. The American Acupuncturist. 2012; 61: 12-18.

Hammerschlag R, Zwickey H. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine: Back to basics. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2006: 12: 349-350.

Hammerschlag R, Milley R. Controlled clinical trials in acupuncture. In: Rakel & Faass, ed. Complementary medicine in clinical practice: Integrative practice in American healthcare. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 2005.

Nielsen A, Hammerschlag R. Acupuncture and East Asian medicine. In: Kligler & Lee, ed. Integrative Medicine: Principles for Practice. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2004: 177-217.

MacPherson H, Sherman K, Hammerschlag R, Birch S, Lao L, Zaslawski C. The clinical evaluation of traditional East Asian system of medicine. Clinical Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine. 2002; 3: 16-19.